Rabu, 04 Desember 2013

Processes Of Word Formation




The expression 'word-formation' or 'word-making' or 'word-building' means the process of creating or forming words out of sequences of morphemes or words. In English, word formation has got a great importance, because the resources of this language have been enriched by this phenomenon as well as by borrowings from various other languages. New words have continued to be made from old ones, and have thus added to the existing store of words or vocables.
Various processes of word-formation have been at work in English, the chief of which are:
A.    Compounding
Compounding consists in the combination of two or more (usually free) roots to forma new word. For example, the word blackboard, heartfelt, brother-in-law are compoundwords; they are made up of the roots (at the same time words themselves) black and board,heart and felt, brother, in and law, respectively.Compounding is a very common process in most languages of the world. In English, for instance, compound words have the followingcharacteristics:
1.      Compounds words behave grammatically and semantically as single words.
2.      Since compound words behave as units, between their component elements no affixes(whether inflections or derivations) can usually occur; inflectional suffixes can appearonly after compound words. For example, bathrooms, school, buses, water resistant. Exceptions:passersby, brothers-in-law, courts-martial.
3.      Compound words can be written in three different ways:
a)      Open, i.e., with a space between the parts of the compound; e.g., toy store, divingboard, flower pot.
b)      Hyphenated, i.e., with a hyphen (-) separating the elements of the compound;e.g., flower-pot, air-brake, she-pony.
c)      Solid, e.g., without a space or hyphen between the component elements of thecompound; e.g., flowerpot, washrooms, pickpocket.
Note: The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meanings of its parts, e.g.:
Coconut oil   : oil made from coconuts.
Olive oil        : oil made from olives.
Baby oil        : NOT oil made from babies.

B.     Derivation
Derivation, as ''the most common word formation process'', builds new words byadding morphemes to stems. Derivation is the word formation process in which a derivational affix attaches to the base form of a word to create a new word. Affixes, which include prefixes and suffixes, are bound morphemes. Morphemes are the smallest linguistic unit of a language with semantic meaning. Bound morphemes, unlike free morphemes, cannot stand alone but must attach to another morpheme such as a word. For example, the following two lists provide examples of some common prefixes and suffixes with definitions in English:
o    a- – without, not
o    co- – together
o    de- – opposite, negative, removal, separation
o    dis- –opposite, negative
o    en- – cause to be
o    ex- – former, previous, from
o    in- – negative, not
o    non- – absence, not
o    re- – again, repeatedly
o    un- – negative, not, opposite, reversal
o    -able – sense of being
o    -er – agent
o    -ful – characterized by
o    -fy – make, become, cause to be
o    -ism – action or practice, state or condition
o    -less – lack of
o    -ly – -like
o    -ology – study, science
o    -ship – condition, character, skill
o    -y – characterized by, inclination, condition
Derivation may result in new words of the same grammatical form, e.g., noun to noun, or of different grammatical forms, e.g., verb to noun.

C.    Invention
Invention in the proper names or trade names for one company’s product become general terms for any version of that product For example, brand names such as Xerox, Kodak, Exxon, Kleenex,8 Nylon, Dacron, etc.; pooch, snob, nerd, blurb, googol. These started as names of specific products, but now they are used as the generic names for different brands of these types of products.

D.    Echoism(Onomatopoeia)
Echoism is the formation of words by imitating sounds. Also, it’s a figure of speech that suggests orimitates the origin of a particular sound. Let us have a look at some of these words used in English language through information presented below.
Ø  Argh: This word/sound is used in reference with an exclamatory expression resulting from frustration.
Ø  Bark: Sound produced by a dog.
Ø  Bang: The sound is associated with that of gunshot.
Ø  Boom: This word is used in reference with sound of an explosion.
Ø  Bubble: The expression is used to indicate the release of air from water.
Ø  Buzz: Sound produced by a bee.
Ø  Boing: The sound is used in reference with bounce or spring.
Ø  Crash: Collision between two objects.
Ø  Creak: It is the sound produced when a particular object is under pressure.
Ø  Click: A tapping sound. Variety of items/objects produce the sound, 'click'
Ø  Chirp: General perception of the sound produced by birds.
Ø  Croak: Sound made by a frog.
Ø  Clatter: Dropping objects produce this kind of sound.
Ø  Ding Dong: Sound produced by a doorbell.
Ø  Dump: Throwing an object in garbage.
E.     Clipping
Clipping is the processes whereby new words are formed by shortening other words; i.e., by eliminating the initial part, the last part, or both parts, of those words. E.g., phonefrom (tele)phone, plane from (air)plane, ad (advert (BrE)) from ad(vertisement), examfrom exam(ination), flu from (in)flu(enza), fridge(esp. BrE) from refrigerator.
Notice that the short form or clipping represents the word in its entirety; however, that
fragment does not have to be the salient part of the original word, neither prosodically nor
semantically. Also, the clipping may not be used in the same contexts as the longer word.
For example, the word exam is mostly used to refer to academic examinations or tests, notto medical examinations or check-ups.
F.     Acronymy
Acronymy is the process whereby a new word is formed from the initial letters of theconstituent words of a phrase or sentence.
Types of Acronyms
According to Quirk et al. (1985), there are two main types of acronyms, namely:
1.      Acronyms which are pronounced as a word; e.g., NASA \ "noes´\ (= National Aeronauticsand Space Administration), radar \ "reIÆdA…r\ radar \ "reIÆdA…r\ (radio detecting andranging), laser (= light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation), UNESCO\ju…"nesk´U\ (= United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), BASIC\ "beIsIk\ (= Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), COBOL \ "k´UbÅl\ (CommonBusiness Oriented Language), etc.
As can be seen, acronyms of this type often derive from phrasal names. Many of thembelong to the jargon (i.e., specialized language) of particular occupations, organizations orfields of study (esp. scientific, administrative, political) and might be completely meaninglessto the persons who are not familiarized with them. Notice also that some of these acronymsare of so frequent an occurrence that people often use them without the slightest ideaof what the words stand for; e.g., laser, radar.
2.      Acronyms which are pronounced as sequences of letters (also called 'alphabetisms');e.g., C.O.D. \ Æsi…´U"di…\ ( = cash on delivery), MIT \ ÆemaI"ti…\ (= Massachusetts Instituteof Technology), VIP \ Ævi…aI"pi…\ (= very important person). In writing, the more institutionalizedformations have no periods between their component letters. This tendency isespecially more common in British English than in American English; e.g., DIY \ Ædi…aI"waI\(= do-it-yourself), FBI \ Æefbi…"aI\ (= Federal Bureau of Investigations).Note that each constituent letter of these acronyms usually represents a full word orconstituent in the compound, or just a part of a word, as in the following examples: TB\ Æti…"bi…\ (= tuberculosis), TV \Æti…"vi…\ (= television), c/o (= (in) care of).6 Likewise,notice thatsome of these acronyms are given a quasi-phonetic written form; e.g., Emcee for M.C. (=Master of Ceremonies), Deejay for DJ (= disc jockey), etc.

G.    Blending
Blending is the process whereby new words are formed by combining parts of twowords, usually the beginning of one word and the end of another.
Formation of blending:
Most blends are formed by one of the following methods:
1)      The beginning of one word is added to the end of the other. For example, brunch is a blend of breakfast and lunch. This is the most common method of blending.
2)      The beginnings of two words are combined. For example, cyborg is a blend of cybernetic and organism.
3)      One complete word is combined with part of another word. For example, guesstimate is a blend of guess and estimate.
4)      Two words are blended around a common sequence of sounds. For example, the word Californication, from a song by the Red Hot Chili Peppers, is a blend of California and fornication.
5)      Multiple sounds from two component words are blended, while mostly preserving the sounds' order. Poet Lewis Carroll was well known for these kinds of blends. An example of this is the word slithy, a blend of lithe and slimy. This method is difficult to achieve and is considered a sign of Carroll's verbal wit.
H.    Back-formation
Back-formation is the word formation process in which an actual or supposed derivational affix detaches from the base form of a word to create a new word. For example, the following list provides examples of some common back-formations in English:
Original – Back-formation
  • babysitter – babysit
  • donation – donate
  • gambler – gamble
  • hazy – haze
  • moonlighter – moonlight
  • obsessive – obsess
  • procession – process
  • resurrection – resurrect
  • sassy – sass
  • television – televise
I.       Antonomasia 
Antonomasia is that figure of speech that employs a suitable epithet or appellative to cite a person or thing rather than the original name. Also, antonomasia is a rhetoric way of giving an appropriate name or title to someone or something. The epithet or appellative is usually inspired by a specific character, a particular physical trait, or some outstanding feats or deeds of that person or thing and are not just any random names.
Popular Antonomasia
  • Tarzan - wild
  • Solomon - a wise man
  • Casanova - a philanderer
  • The Bard of Avon - William Shakespeare
  • Beowulf - a myth
  • The Dark Knight - Batman
  • The Führer - Adolf Hitler
  • Judas - Betrayer
  • The Philosopher - Aristotle
J.      Reduplication
In this process we make a type of compounds in which both elements or components are same or only slightly different. 'Tom-tom', 'dilly-dally', 'goody-goody', 'wishy-washy' and 'pooh-pooh' are some examples of such compounds.In addition state that the most common uses of reduplicatives arethe following:
a)      To imitate sounds, e.g., rat-a-tat (knocking on door), tick-tack (of a clock), ha-ha (oflaughter), bow-wow (of dog).
b)      To suggest alternating movements, e.g., see saw, flip-flop, ping-pong.
c)      To disparage by suggesting instability, nonsense, insincerity, vacillation, etc.,se.g.,higgledy-piggledy, hocus-pocus, wishy-washy, dilly-dally, shilly-shally, willy-nilly.
d)     To intensify, e.g., teeny-weeny, tip-top.

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